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Free Information A-Z

About this information

The information available from the links below is reliable, easy-to-read (plain English) and, in some cases, easily avaialble for print. This information is recommended by the Australian Orthopaedic Association.

Orthoinfo, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons page for patients, is here. Their information is notated (AAOS).

Orthoanswer, a web site developed for patients by a fellow Australian orthopaedic surgeon, is here. Their information is notated (Au)

NHS Choice, the website of the National Health Service in the UK, is here. Their information is notated (NHS).

 To use this page
  • Look for the topic you would like information on.

  • The subjects underneath are all sorted alphabetically.

  • A-L are in the left column, M-X are in the right column.

  • Click in the link

  • For example - for hip arthritis, scroll down to the "H" section, find "hip arthritis", and click on the link.

Alternatively use the "search" or "find" feature in your browser to locate the word or phrase you are looking for on this page.

The default/usual keys to press to find things in most web browser is Ctrl+F.

Any/all patients being considered for surgery will be shown this information as part of their "informed consent" process.

A B C D E F G H  J K L




About Casts (AAOS)

AC (Acromioclavicular) Joint Dislocation (Au)

AC Joint Arthritis (Au)

AC Joint Excision (Au)

Accidents and first aid (NHS)

Acetabular Fractures (AAOS)

Achilles Tendinitis (AAOS)

Achilles Tendinitis (Au)

Achilles Tendon Repair (Au)

Achilles Tendon Rupture (Au)

Achilles Tendon Rupture (Tear) (AAOS)

ACL Injury: Does It Require Surgery? (AAOS)

ACL reconstruction (Au)

ACL Reconstruction Procedure (AAOS)

Acromegaly (NHS)

Activities After Hip Replacement (AAOS)

Activities After Knee Replacement (AAOS)

Acupuncture (NHS)

Adhesive capsulitis  (NHS)

Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain (AAOS)

Adolescent Hip Dysplasia (AAOS)

Adult Acquired Flatfoot (AAOS)

Adult Forearm Fractures (AAOS)

Adult Spondylolisthesis in the Low Back (AAOS)

Alternative Methods to Help Manage Pain After Orthopaedic Surgery (AAOS)

Amputation (NHS)

Anabolic steroid misuse (NHS)

Anaesthesia - Epidural (NHS)

Anaesthesia - General anaesthetic  (NHS)

Anaesthesia - Local anaesthetic (NHS)

Anaesthesia (NHS)

Anaphylaxis (NHS)

Anatomy of the Spine (AAOS)

Anesthesia for Hip and Knee Surgery (AAOS)

Animal Bites (AAOS)

Animal bites (NHS)

Ankle (Au)

Ankle Arthritis (Au)

Ankle Arthrodesis (fusion) (Au)

Ankle Arthroscopy (Au)

Ankle dislocation (Au)

Ankle Fractures (Broken Ankle) (AAOS)

Ankle Fractures In Children (AAOS)

Ankle Instability (Chronic) (Au)

Ankle Replacement (Au)

Ankle, broken (NHS)

Ankylosing Spondylitis (Au)

Ankylosing spondylitis (NHS)

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries (AAOS)

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries (Au)

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (AAOS)

Antibiotics (NHS)

Anticoagulant medicines  (NHS)

Anticoagulant medicines - Warfarin (NHS)

Anti-inflammatories, non-steroidal (NHS)

Antiphospholipid syndrome (NHS)

Antiplatelets, clopidogrel (NHS)

Arm or elbow pain (NHS)

Arm, broken (NHS)

Arthritis - Gout (NHS)

Arthritis - Osteoarthritis (NHS)

Arthritis - Psoriatic arthritis (NHS)

Arthritis - Rheumatoid arthritis (NHS)

Arthritis - Septic arthritis (NHS)

Arthritis (NHS)

Arthritis in the Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus) (Au)

Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle (AAOS)

Arthritis of the Hand (AAOS)

Arthritis of the Knee (AAOS)

Arthritis of the Shoulder (AAOS)

Arthritis of the Shoulder (Au)

Arthritis of the Thumb (AAOS)

Arthritis of the Thumb (Au)

Arthritis of the Wrist (AAOS)

Arthritis of the Wrist (Au)

Arthritis: An Overview (AAOS)

Arthrodesis (fusion) of the Big Toe (Au)

Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair (AAOS)

Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilisation (Au)

Arthroscopy (AAOS)

Arthroscopy (NHS)

Articular Cartilage Restoration (AAOS)

Artificial Disk Replacement in the Lumbar Spine (AAOS)

Aspirin (NHS)

Ataxia (NHS)

Athletes avoiding injury (Au)

Avoiding injury in the older person  (Au)


Back pain  (NHS)

Back Pain - Managing back pain (NHS)

Back Pain - Neck pain (NHS)

Back Pain - Sciatica (NHS)

Back Pain - Shoulder pain (NHS)

Back Pain - Slipped disc (NHS)

Back Pain - Spondylolisthesis (NHS)

Back Pain and Spine Disorders in U.S. Veterans (AAOS)

Back pain guide tool (NHS)

Back Pain in Children (AAOS)

Back Pain in Children (Au)

Backpack Safety (Au)

Bacterial arthritis (NHS)

Baker's Cyst (Au)

Before and After Total Joint Replacement (AAOS)

Beta-blockers (NHS)

Biceps Tendinitis (AAOS)

Biceps Tendon Tear at the Elbow (AAOS)

Biceps Tendon Tear at the Shoulder (AAOS)

Biceps Tendon Tear at the Shoulder (Au)

Biceps Tendonitis (Au)

Biceps Tenodesis (Au)

Biopsy (NHS)

Bites  (NHS)

Bites - Dog bites (NHS)

Bites, animal and human (NHS)

Blood clot  (NHS)

Blood clot - Arterial thrombosis (NHS)

Blood clot – Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (NHS)

Blood clot - Pulmonary embolism (NHS)

Blood transfusion (NHS)

Blount's Disease (Au)


BMI calculator (NHS)

Boils (NHS)

Bone and Tissue Transplantation (AAOS)

Bone cancer  (NHS)

Bone cancer - Living with cancer (NHS)

Bone cyst (NHS)

Bone densitometry scan (NHS)

Bone Grafts in Spine Surgery (AAOS)

Bone health  (NHS)

Bone health - DEXA scan (NHS)

Bone health - Falls (NHS)

Bone health - Osteomalacia (NHS)

Bone health - Osteophyte (bone spur) (NHS)

Bone health - Osteoporosis (NHS)

Bone health - Rickets (NHS)

Bone infection (NHS)

Bone marrow donation (NHS)

Bone marrow transplant  (NHS)

Bone Sarcoma in the Upper Extremity: Treatment Options Using Limb Salvage or Amputation (AAOS)

Bone spur (osteophyte) (NHS)

Bone Tumor (AAOS)

Bone, Joint, and Muscle Infections in Children (AAOS)

Boutonnière Deformity (AAOS)

Bowed Legs (Blount's Disease) (AAOS)

Bowed Legs in Children (Au)

Brachial Plexus Injuries (AAOS)

Brittle bones (NHS)

Broken ankle (NHS)

Broken Arm - general advice (Au)

Broken arm (NHS)

Broken collarbone (NHS)

Broken finger (NHS)

Broken heart syndrome (NHS)

Broken hip (NHS)

Broken leg (NHS)

Broken nose (NHS)

Broken ribs (NHS)

Broken toe (NHS)

Broken tooth (NHS)

Broken wrist (NHS)

Bruising (NHS)

Bunion (NHS)

Bunion Surgery (AAOS)

Bunion surgery (Au)

Bunions (AAOS)

Bunions (Hallux Valgus) (Au)

Burners and Stingers (AAOS)

Burning Thigh Pain (Meralgia Paresthetica) (AAOS)

Burns and scalds (NHS)

Bursitis (NHS)



Calcaneus (Au)

Calcaneus (Heel Bone) Fractures (AAOS)

Cancer  (NHS)

Cancer - Bone cancer (NHS)

Cancer - Chemotherapy (NHS)

Cancer - Living with cancer (NHS)

Cancer - Multiple myeloma (NHS)

Cancer - Radiotherapy (NHS)

Canes and Walkers (Au)

Care of Casts and Splints (AAOS)

Care of Casts and Splints (Au)

Carpal Tunnel Release (Au)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (AAOS)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (Au)

Carpal tunnel syndrome (NHS)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Animation (AAOS)

Cartilage damage (NHS)

Cat bites (NHS)

Cauda Equina Syndrome (AAOS)

Cauda Equina Syndrome (Au)

Cerebral Palsy (AAOS)

Cervical Fracture (Au)

Cervical Fracture (Broken Neck) (AAOS)

Cervical Radiculopathy (Au)

Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve) (AAOS)

Cervical rib (NHS)

Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) (AAOS)

Cervical Spondylosis (Au)

Cervical spondylosis (NHS)

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (Spinal Cord Compression) (AAOS)

Charcot Marie Tooth Disease (Au)

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (AAOS)

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (NHS)

Cheilectomy (Au)

Children’s ankle (Au)

Chiropractic (NHS)

Chondroblastoma (AAOS)

Chondromalacia Patella (Au)

Chondromyxoid Fibroma (AAOS)

Chondrosarcoma (AAOS)

Chordoma (AAOS)

Chronic Shoulder Instability (AAOS)

Clavicle (Collarbone) fractures (Au)

Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone) (AAOS)

Claw Toe (AAOS)

Claw Toes (Au)

Clubfoot (AAOS)

Clubfoot (Tallipes) (Au)

Coccydynia (NHS)

Collarbone injury (NHS)

Collateral Ligament Injuries (AAOS)

Combined Knee Ligament Injuries (AAOS)

Common Knee Injuries (AAOS)

Common Shoulder Injuries (AAOS)

Compartment Syndrome (AAOS)

Compartment Syndrome (Au)

Compartment syndrome (NHS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Au)

Complex regional pain syndrome (NHS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) (AAOS)

Computerised tomography (NHS)

Congenital Hand Differences (AAOS)

Congenital hip dislocation (NHS)

Congenital Muscular Torticollis (Twisted Neck) (AAOS)

Congenital Scoliosis (AAOS)

Congenital Torticollis (Twisted Neck) (Au)

Corns (AAOS)

Costochondritis (NHS)


CT scan (NHS)


De Quervain's Tendinitis (Au)

De Quervain's Tendinosis (AAOS)

Deep Vein Thrombosis (AAOS)

Deep vein thrombosis (NHS)

Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH) (AAOS)

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) (Au)

Diabetic (Charcot) Foot (AAOS)

Diabetic Foot (Au)

Discoid Meniscus (AAOS)

Disk herniation (slipped disk) (Au)

Disk Surgery (Au)

Dislocated kneecap (NHS)

Dislocated Shoulder (AAOS)

Dislocated shoulder (NHS)

Dislocation After Total Hip Replacement (AAOS)

Distal Femur (Thighbone) Fractures of the Knee (AAOS)

Distal Humerus Fractures of the Elbow (AAOS)

Distal Radius Fracture (Au)

Distal Radius Fractures (Broken Wrist) (AAOS)

Dog bites (NHS)

Down Syndrome: Musculoskeletal Effects (AAOS)

Dupuytren's Contracture (Au)

Dupuytren's contracture (NHS)

Dupuytren's Disease (AAOS)


Dwarfism (NHS)

DXA scan (NHS)

Dynamic Hip Screws (Au)

Dysplasia of the hip, children (NHS)


Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (NHS)

Elbow (Olecranon) Bursitis (AAOS)

Elbow (Olecranon) Fractures (AAOS)

Elbow Arthroscopy (AAOS)

Elbow Dislocation (AAOS)

Elbow Dislocation (Au)

Elbow fractures (Au)

Elbow Fractures in Children (AAOS)

Elbow fractures in children (Au)

Elbow Injuries in the Throwing Athlete (AAOS)

Elbow or arm pain (NHS)

Elbow Replacement (Au)

Electrodiagnostic Testing (AAOS)

Embolism (NHS)

Emollients (NHS)

Enchondroma (AAOS)

Enhanced recovery (NHS)

Epicondylitis (NHS)

Epidural anaesthesia (NHS)

Erb's Palsy (Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy) (AAOS)

Erythromycin (NHS)

Ewing sarcoma (NHS)

Ewing's Sarcoma (AAOS)

Excision of ganglion (NHS)

Exercises After Hip Replacement (Au)

Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors (AAOS)



Factor V Leiden (NHS)

Falls (NHS)

Female Athlete Triad: Problems Caused by Extreme Exercise and Dieting (AAOS)

Femoroacetabular Impingement (AAOS)

Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI - Hip Impingement) (Au)

Femur Fractures (Au)

Femur Shaft Fractures (Broken Thighbone) (AAOS)

Fibromyalgia  (NHS)

Fibrous Dysplasia (AAOS)

Fifth Metatarsal (Au)

Find weight loss support services (NHS)

Finger Fractures (AAOS)

Finger injury (NHS)

Finger, bent fingertip (NHS)

Fingertip Injuries and Amputations (AAOS)

First aid (NHS)

Fitness  (NHS)

Fitness - Couch to 5K (NHS)

Fitness - Physical activity guidelines for adults (NHS)

Fitness - Physical activity guidelines for over 65s (NHS)

Fitness - Physical activity guidelines for under fives (NHS)

Fitness - Physical activity guidelines for young people (NHS)

Fixation of Distal Radial Fractures (Au)

Fixation of Scaphoid Fractures (Au)

Flat feet (NHS)

Flatfoot (Pes Planus) (Au)

Flexible Flatfoot in Children (AAOS)

Flexor Tendon Injuries (AAOS)

Flucloxacillin (NHS)

Foot and Ankle Conditioning Program (AAOS)

Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation Exercises (AAOS)

Foot Arthrodesis - Hindfoot (Au)

Foot drop (NHS)

Foot pain (NHS)

Footwear in Orthopaedics (Au)

Forearm Fractures in Children (AAOS)

Fracture of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine (Au)

Fractured ankle (NHS)

Fractured arm (NHS)

Fractured collarbone (NHS)

Fractured hip (NHS)

Fractured ribs (NHS)

Fractured toe (NHS)

Fractured wrist (NHS)

Fragile bones (NHS)

Freiberg's Disease (Au)

Friedrich's ataxia (NHS)

Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis) (Au)

Frozen shoulder (NHS)

Fungal nail infection (NHS)


Gabapentin (NHS)

Ganglion (Cyst) of the Wrist (Au)

Ganglion (NHS)

Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand (AAOS)

Gangrene (NHS)

General anaesthetic (NHS)

General Information (Au)

General Rehabilitation in Physiotherapy (Au)

Getting the Most Out of Your Doctor's Visit (AAOS)

Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (AAOS)

Glossary of Orthopaedic Diagnostic Tests (AAOS)

Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate (AAOS)

Golfer's Elbow (Medial Epicondylitis) (Au)

Gout & Psuedogout (Au)

Gout (AAOS)

Gout (NHS)

Grazes (NHS)

Growth Plate Fractures (AAOS)



Haemangioma (NHS)

Haemochromatosis (NHS)

Haemophilia (NHS)

Haemorrhage (bleeding) (NHS)

Hallux valgus (NHS)

Hammer finger (NHS)

Hammer Toe (AAOS)

Hammer Toe (Au)

Hammer Toe Correction (Au)

Hamstring injury (NHS)

Hamstring Muscle Injuries (AAOS)

Hand Fractures (AAOS)

Hand pain (NHS)

Hand tendon, repair (NHS)

Having an operation (NHS)

Heat Injury and Heat Exhaustion (AAOS)

Heel Pain (AAOS)

Heel pain (NHS)

Heel Pain | Fat Pad Contusion (Au)

Helping Fractures Heal (Orthobiologics) (AAOS)

Hemangioma (AAOS)

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (NHS)

Hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies (HNPP)  (NHS)

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (NHS)

Herniated Disk (AAOS)

Herniated Disk Animation (AAOS)

Herniated Disk in the Lower Back (AAOS)

High School Sports Injuries (AAOS)

Hip Arthroscopy (AAOS)

Hip Arthroscopy (Au)

Hip Bursitis (AAOS)

Hip Bursitis (trochanteric bursitis) (Au)

Hip Conditioning Program (AAOS)

Hip Dislocation (AAOS)

Hip Dislocation (Au)

Hip dysplasia (children) (NHS)

Hip fracture (NHS)

Hip Fractures (AAOS)

Hip Fractures (Au)

Hip hemiarthroplasty (Au)

Hip pain in adults (NHS)

Hip pain in children (NHS)

Hip Rehabilitation Exercises (AAOS)

Hip Replacement (Au)

Hip replacement (NHS)

Hip Resurfacing (AAOS)

Hip Strains (AAOS)

Hip Strains (Au)

Homeopathy (NHS)

How Broken Bones Heal (AAOS)

How to Use Crutches (Au)

How to Use Crutches, Canes, and Walkers (AAOS)

Human Bites (AAOS)

Humerus (Arm) fractures (Au)

Hunchback (NHS)

Hypermobility (NHS)


Ibuprofen (NHS)

Idiopathic Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents (AAOS)

Impingement syndrome (trapped shoulder tendon) (NHS)

Infections (AAOS)

Infections After Fracture (AAOS)

Infectious arthritis (NHS)

Inflammatory Arthritis of the Hip (AAOS)

Ingrown Toenail (AAOS)

Ingrown toenail (NHS)

Internal Fixation for Fractures (AAOS)

Intoeing (AAOS)

Intramedullary Nails (Au)

Introduction to Scoliosis (AAOS)

Irritable hip (NHS)



Joint hypermobility (NHS)

Joint pain (NHS)

Joint Replacement Infection (AAOS)

Juvenile Arthritis (AAOS)



Kaposi's sarcoma (NHS)

Kienböck's Disease (AAOS)

Kienböck's Disease (Au)

Knee Arthroscopy (AAOS)

Knee arthroscopy (Au)

Knee Arthroscopy Exercise Guide (AAOS)

Knee Bursitis (Au)

Knee Conditioning Program (AAOS)

Knee Effusion (Au)

Knee pain (NHS)

Knee Rehabilitation Exercises (AAOS)

Knee replacement (NHS)

Knee Replacement Implants (AAOS)

Knee surgery, anterior cruciate ligament (NHS)

Knee, housemaid's (NHS)

Kneecap dislocation (NHS)

Knock knees (NHS)

Kyphosis (NHS)

Kyphosis (Roundback) of the Spine (AAOS)

Kyphosis (Roundback) of the Spine (Au)



Labral Tears (Au)

Lacerations (NHS)

Lateral Ankle Reconstruction for Ankle Instability (Au)

Lateral Collateral Ligament Injury (Au)

Lateral epicondylitis (NHS)

Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (AAOS)

Lawn Mower Injuries in Children (AAOS)

Leg Length Discrepancy (Au)

Leg, broken (NHS)

Leukemia (AAOS)

Ligamentum Teres Tears (Au)

Limb Length Discrepancy (AAOS)

Limping in children (NHS)

Lipoma (AAOS)

Lisfranc (Midfoot) Injury (AAOS)

LisFranc dislocation (Au)

Local anaesthetic (NHS)

Locked neck (NHS)

Loose Bodies (Au)

Low Back Pain (AAOS)

Low Back Pain (Au)

Low Back Surgery Exercise Guide (AAOS)

Low dose aspirin (NHS)

Lumbago (low back pain) (NHS)

Lumbar decompression surgery (NHS)

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis (AAOS)

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis (Au)

Lumbar Spine Fusion (Au)

Lump or swelling (NHS)

Lupus (NHS)

Lyme Disease (AAOS)

Lyme disease (NHS)


Magnetic resonance imaging scan (NHS)

Mallet Finger (Baseball Finger) (AAOS)

Mallet finger (NHS)

Mallet Toe (Au)

Managing Arthritis Pain With Exercise (AAOS)

Managing Pain With Medications After Orthopaedic Surgery (AAOS)

Marfan Syndrome (AAOS)

Marfan syndrome (NHS)

Medial Collateral Ligament Injury (Au)

Medial tibial stress syndrome (NHS)

Median nerve compression (NHS)

Medical research  (NHS)

Medication (Au)

Meniscal Tear (Au)

Meniscal Transplant Surgery (AAOS)

Meniscus tear (Au)

Meniscus Tears (AAOS)

Meniscus Tears Overview (AAOS)

Meralgia Paraesthetica (Au)

Metastatic Bone Disease (AAOS)

Metastatic Bone Disease: Treatment Options for Specific Areas of Spread (AAOS)

Metatarsalgia (Au)

Metatarsalgia (NHS)

Metatarsus Adductus (Au)

Metformin (NHS)

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (NHS)

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (AAOS)

Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement (AAOS)

Minimally Invasive Total Knee Replacement (AAOS)

Mitral valve problems and operations (NHS)

Modified Shoes (Au)

Monteggia Fracture-Dislocations (Au)

Morphine (NHS)

Morton's Neuroma (AAOS)

Morton's Neuroma (Au)

Morton's neuroma (NHS)

Mosquito bites (NHS)

MRI scan (NHS)

MRSA infection (NHS)

Multiple myeloma (NHS)

Multiple Myeloma/Plasmacytoma (AAOS)

Muscle Contusion (Bruise) (AAOS)

Muscle Cramps (AAOS)

Muscle Strains in the Thigh (AAOS)

Muscular Dystrophy (AAOS)

Muscular dystrophy (NHS)

Myeloma (NHS)

Myositis (AAOS)


Nail abnormalities  (NHS)

Nail abnormalities - Fungal nail infection (NHS)

Nail abnormalities - Ingrown toenail (NHS)

Nail patella syndrome (NHS)

Naproxen (NHS)

Neck Pain (AAOS)

Neck Pain (Au)

Neck pain (NHS)

Neck Sprain (AAOS)

Neck Sprain (Au)

Neck stiffness (NHS)

Necrotising fasciitis (NHS)

Nerve Injuries (AAOS)

Neuroblastoma (NHS)

Neuroendocrine tumours (NHS)

Neurofibromatosis (AAOS)

Neurofibromatosis type 1  (NHS)

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NHS)

Neuromuscular Scoliosis (AAOS)

Neuropathy, peripheral (NHS)

Nonossifying Fibroma (AAOS)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NHS)

Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Scoliosis (AAOS)

Nonunions (AAOS)

Nursemaid's Elbow (AAOS)



Obesity  (NHS)

Obesity, Weight Loss, and Joint Replacement Surgery (AAOS)

Obstructive sleep apnoea (NHS)

Occupational therapy (NHS)

Oedema (NHS)

Olecranon Bursitis (Elbow bursitis) (Au)

Onychogryphosis (overgrown nails) (NHS)

Onychomycosis (NHS)

Open Fractures (AAOS)

Operation, going into hospital (NHS)

Orthopaedic Evidence-Based Medicine (AAOS)

Orthopaedics (AAOS)

Orthotics (AAOS)

Orthotics (Au)

OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea) (NHS)

Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Au)

Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Knee Pain) (AAOS)

Osgood-Schlatter's disease (NHS)

Osteoarthritis (AAOS)

Osteoarthritis (NHS)

Osteoarthritis of the Elbow (AAOS)

Osteoarthritis of the Elbow (Au)

Osteoarthritis of the Hip (AAOS)

Osteoarthritis of the Hip (Au)

Osteoarthritis of the Hip Animation (AAOS)

Osteoarthritis of the Knee (Au)

Osteoarthritis of the Knee Animation (AAOS)

Osteoblastoma (AAOS)

Osteochondritis Dessicans of the Elbow (Au)

Osteochondritis Dissecans (AAOS)

Osteochondroma (AAOS)

Osteofibrous Dysplasia and Adamantinoma (AAOS)

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (AAOS)

Osteoid Osteoma (AAOS)

Osteomalacia (NHS)

Osteomyelitis (NHS)

Osteonecrosis of the Hip (AAOS)

Osteonecrosis of the Hip (Au)

Osteonecrosis of the Knee (AAOS)

Osteonecrosis of the Knee (Au)

Osteopathy (NHS)

Osteophyte (bone spur) (NHS)

Osteoporosis (AAOS)

Osteoporosis (NHS)

Osteoporosis and Spinal Fractures (AAOS)

Osteosarcoma (AAOS)

Osteotomy of the Knee (AAOS)

Overuse Injuries in Children (AAOS)



Paget's Disease of Bone (AAOS)

Paget's disease of bone (NHS)

Pain (NHS)

Pain, shoulder (NHS)

Painkillers - Children's medicines (NHS)

Painkillers - Children's medicines (NHS)

Painkillers, ibuprofen  (NHS)

Painkillers, paracetamol  (NHS)

Palliative care (NHS)

Paracetamol (NHS)

Paraesthesia (NHS)

Paralysis (NHS)

Patella (Kneecap) Fractures (Au)

Patellar (Kneecap) Fractures (AAOS)

Patellar Dislocation and Instability in Children (Unstable Kneecap) (AAOS)

Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper's Knee) (Au)

Patellar Tendon Tear (AAOS)

Patellofemoral Arthritis (AAOS)

Patellofemoral arthritis (Au)

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (AAOS)

Patellofemoral Replacement (AAOS)

Patient Guide to Safe Surgery (AAOS)

Patient Safety (AAOS)

Patient Story: ACL and Meniscus Tears (AAOS)

Patient Story: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AAOS)

Patient Story: Ankle Fracture (AAOS)

Patient Story: Ankle Fracture and Chronic Ankle Laxity (AAOS)

Patient Story: Ankle Joint Replacement (AAOS)

Patient Story: Ankle, Elbow, and Vertebral Fractures (AAOS)

Patient Story: Bone Cancer (AAOS)

Patient Story: Chiari Malformation and Scoliosis (AAOS)

Patient Story: Hip Resurfacing (AAOS)

Patient Story: Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (AAOS)

Patient Story: Infection After Fracture (AAOS)

Patient Story: Knee Ligament Injuries (AAOS)

Patient Story: Knee Ligament Injuries and Meniscus Tear (AAOS)

Patient Story: Multiple Fractures in the Spine, Knees, and Ankles (AAOS)

Patient Story: Multiple Knee Injuries and Knee Instability (AAOS)

Patient Story: Orthopaedic Trauma and Arthritis (AAOS)

Patient Story: Osteoarthritis and Total Knee Replacement (AAOS)

Patient Story: Posttraumatic Arthritis and Total Knee Replacement (AAOS)

Patient Story: Rotator Cuff Tear (AAOS)

Patient Story: Scoliosis Treatment With Growing Rods (AAOS)

Patient Story: Scoliosis Treatment With Spinal Fusion Surgery (AAOS)

Patient Story: Severe Injuries and Fractures Lead to Multiple Surgeries (AAOS)

Patients Are Important Members of the Healthcare Team (AAOS)

Pelvic Fractures (AAOS)

Pelvis Fractures (Au)

Penicillin (NHS)

Periosteal and Soft Tissue Chondromas (AAOS)

Peripheral arterial disease (NHS)

Peripheral neuropathy (NHS)

Peroneal muscular atrophy (NHS)

Perthes Disease (AAOS)

Perthes Disease (Au)

Pes Anserine (Knee Tendon) Bursitis (AAOS)

PET scan (NHS)

Physiotherapy (NHS)

Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (AAOS)

Pilon Fractures of the Ankle (AAOS)

Pins and needles (NHS)

Plantar Fasciitis (Au)

Plantar fasciitis (NHS)

Plantar Fasciitis and Bone Spurs (AAOS)

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) (AAOS)

Polio (NHS)

Polymyalgia rheumatica (NHS)

Polymyositis (NHS)

Popliteal cyst (NHS)

Positron emission tomography (NHS)

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Injury (Au)

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries (AAOS)

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (AAOS)

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (AAOS)

Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion (AAOS)

Post-polio syndrome  (NHS)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (NHS)

Prednisolone (NHS)

Pregabalin (NHS)

Pregnancy and X-rays (AAOS)

Preparing for Joint Replacement Surgery (AAOS)

Preparing for Low Back Surgery (AAOS)

Preparing for Surgery - Learning Modules (AAOS)

Preparing for Surgery: Health Condition Checklist (AAOS)

Preparing for Surgery: Medication Safety Checklist (AAOS)

Prepatellar (Kneecap) Bursitis (AAOS)

Prescription Safety (AAOS)

Pressure ulcers (NHS)

Preventing adolescent injuries (Au)

Preventing Back Pain at Work and at Home (Au)

Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery (AAOS)

Preventing Falls and Broken Hips (Au)

Preventing Infection After Joint Replacement Surgery (AAOS)

Primary Lymphoma of Bone (AAOS)

Prolapsed disc (NHS)

Protein C, Protein S or antithrombin deficiency (NHS)

Psoriasis (NHS)

Psoriatic arthritis (NHS)

Puffy ankles (NHS)

Pulmonary embolism (NHS)



Q fever (NHS)

Quadriceps Tendon Tear (AAOS)

Questions and Answers About Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants (AAOS)

Questions to Ask Your Doctor Before Surgery (AAOS)

Quitting smoking (NHS)


Rabies (AAOS)

Radial Head fractures (Au)

Radial Head Fractures of the Elbow (AAOS)

Radiation (NHS)

Radiotherapy (NHS)

Radius and Ulna (forearm) fractures (Au)

Raynaud's phenomenon (NHS)

Reactive arthritis (NHS)

Recurrent and Chronic Elbow Instability (AAOS)

Rehabilitation after Ankle Sprain (Au)

Repair to tendon (hand) (NHS)

Repetitive strain injury (RSI) (NHS)

Research and clinical trials (NHS)

Respite care (NHS)

Reverse Shoulder Replacement (Au)

Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement (AAOS)

Revision Hip Replacement (Au)

Revision Knee Replacement (Au)

Revision Total Hip Replacement (AAOS)

Revision Total Knee Replacement (AAOS)

Rheumatic fever (NHS)

Rheumatoid arthritis  (NHS)

Rheumatoid Arthritis (AAOS)

Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle (AAOS)

Rheumatoid Foot (Au)

Rib injuries (NHS)

Rib, cervical (NHS)

Rickets (AAOS)

Rickets (NHS)

Ringworm  (NHS)

Ringworn - Athlete's foot (NHS)

Ringworn - Fungal nail infection (NHS)

Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program (AAOS)

Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises (AAOS)

Rotator Cuff Repair (Au)

Rotator Cuff Tear (Au)

Rotator Cuff Tears (AAOS)

Rotator Cuff Tears: Frequently Asked Questions (AAOS)

Rotator Cuff Tears: Surgical Treatment Options (AAOS)

Rotator Cuff Tendinitis (Au)




Sacroiliitis (Au)

Sarcoma, Ewing (NHS)

Sarcoma, soft tissue (NHS)

Scaphoid Fracture of the Wrist (AAOS)

Scaphoid Fractures (Au)

Scapula (Shoulder Blade) Fractures (AAOS)

Scapular (Shoulder Blade) Disorders (AAOS)

Scars (NHS)

Sciatica (AAOS)

Sciatica (Au)

Sciatica (NHS)

Scleroderma (NHS)

Scoliosis (NHS)

Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents (Au)

Scoliosis Surgery: Things to Consider (AAOS)

Scoliosis: Frequently Asked Questions (AAOS)

Scurvy (NHS)

Second Firsts (AAOS)

Sepsis (NHS)

Septic arthritis (NHS)

Septic shock (NHS)

Septicaemia (NHS)

Sesamoiditis (AAOS)

Sesamoiditis and Sesamoid Injury (Au)

Shin Splints (AAOS)

Shin splints (Au)

Shin splints (NHS)

Shinbone (Tibia)Fractures (Au)

Shoulder Arthroscopy (AAOS)

Shoulder Arthroscopy (Au)

Shoulder Bursitis (Au)

Shoulder Dislocation (Au)

Shoulder dislocation (NHS)

Shoulder Impingement (Au)

Shoulder Impingement/Rotator Cuff Tendinitis (AAOS)

Shoulder Injuries in the Throwing Athlete (AAOS)

Shoulder Instability (Au)

Shoulder Joint Replacement (AAOS)

Shoulder Joint Replacement (Au)

Shoulder Joint Tear (Glenoid Labrum Tear) (AAOS)

Shoulder pain (NHS)

Shoulder Pain and Common Shoulder Problems (AAOS)

Shoulder Separation (AAOS)

Shoulder Surgery (AAOS)

Shoulder Surgery Exercise Guide (AAOS)

Shoulder tendon, trapped  (NHS)

Shoulder Trauma (Fractures and Dislocations) (AAOS)

Skin Infections in Athletes (AAOS)


Sleep apnoea (NHS)

Slings: How to use a sling (Au)

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (AAOS)

Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis (Au)

Smoking - Passive smoking (NHS)

Smoking and quitting   (NHS)

Smoking treatments (NHS)

Snapping Hip (AAOS)

Snapping Hip syndrome (Au)

Soft tissue sarcoma (NHS)

Soft Tissue Sarcomas (AAOS)

Spina bifida (NHS)

Spinal Deformity in Children with Myelomeningocele (AAOS)

Spinal Fusion (AAOS)

Spinal Fusion Glossary (AAOS)

Spinal Fusion Procedure (AAOS)

Spinal Injections (AAOS)

Spinal Injections (Au)

Spinal Instrumentation (AAOS)

Spinal muscular atrophy (NHS)

Spinal Stenosis Animation (AAOS)

Spine Basics (AAOS)

Spine Conditioning Program (AAOS)

Spine Rehabilitation Exercises (AAOS)

Spleen disorders and splenectomy (NHS)

Spondylolisthesis (NHS)

Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis (AAOS)

Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis (Au)

Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis (Au)

Sports Concussion (AAOS)

Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) (AAOS)

Sports injuries  (NHS)

Sports Injuries - Cartilage damage (NHS)

Sports Injuries - Physiotherapy (NHS)

Sports Injuries - Shin splints (NHS)

Sports Injuries - Sprains (NHS)

Sports Injuries - Sprains and strains (NHS)

Sports Injuries - Tendonitis (NHS)

Sprained Ankle (AAOS)

Sprained Ankle (Au)

Sprained Thumb (AAOS)

Sprains, Strains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries (AAOS)

Stem cell transplant (NHS)

Sternoclavicular (SC) Joint Disorders (AAOS)

Steroid - Topical corticosteroids (NHS)

Steroid inhalers (NHS)

Steroid injections (NHS)

Steroid medication  (NHS)

Steroid misuse (NHS)

Steroid nasal sprays (NHS)

Steroid tablets (NHS)

Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus) (AAOS)

Stiff neck (NHS)

Stitches and skin glue (NHS)

Streptococcal infections (NHS)

Stress Fractures (AAOS)

Stress Fractures (Au)

Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle (AAOS)

Subacromial Decompression (Au)

Subtalar dislocation (Au)

Surgery and Smoking (AAOS)

Surgery for Ankle Fractures (Au)

Surgery for Jones Fractures (Au)

Surgery planner (NHS)

Surgical Safety Checklist: Steps Your Healthcare Team Takes (AAOS)

Surgical Treatment for Scoliosis (AAOS)

Swollen ankles (NHS)

Syndesmosis Sprain (Au)

Synovial Chondromatosis (AAOS)

Syringomyelia (NHS)


Talipes (NHS)

Talus (Au)

Talus Fractures (AAOS)

Tarsal Coalition (AAOS)

Tarsal Coalition (Au)


Tendon repair, hand (NHS)

Tendonitis (NHS)

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) (AAOS)

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) (Au)

Tennis elbow (NHS)

Tenosynovitis (NHS)

TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation)  (NHS)

The Limping Child (AAOS)

Thigh Strains (Au)

Thighbone (Femur) Fractures In Children (AAOS)

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (AAOS)

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (Au)

Thrombophilia (NHS)

Thrombosis (NHS)

Throwing Injuries in the Elbow in Children (AAOS)

Thumb Fractures (AAOS)

Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures (AAOS)

Tibial Plafond (Pilon) (Au)

Tibialis Posterior Dysfunction (Au)

Tick bites  (NHS)

Tick bites - Lyme disease (NHS)

Tick-borne encephalitis (NHS)

Tics (NHS)

Tight Shoes and Foot Problems (AAOS)

Toe and Forefoot Fractures (AAOS)

Toe Walking (AAOS)

Toes (Au)

Topical corticosteroids (NHS)

Torticollis (NHS)

Total Elbow Replacement (AAOS)

Total Hip Replacement (AAOS)

Total Hip Replacement (Au)

Total Hip Replacement Exercise Guide (AAOS)

Total Hip Replacement Procedure (AAOS)

Total Joint Replacement (AAOS)

Total Joint Replacement: Questions Patients Should Ask Their Surgeon (AAOS)

Total Knee Replacement (AAOS)

Total Knee Replacement (Au)

Total Knee Replacement Exercise Guide (AAOS)

Total Knee Replacement Procedure (AAOS)

Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip (AAOS)

Transverse myelitis (NHS)

Treatment Options for Low Back Pain (AAOS)

Trigger Finger (AAOS)

Trigger finger (NHS)

Trochanteric Bursectomy with Iliotibial Band Release (Au)

Tuberculosis (TB) (NHS)

Turf Toe (AAOS)

Turf Toe | Sprain in the Big Toe (Au)

Twisted neck (NHS)

Type 1 diabetes (NHS)

Type 2 diabetes (NHS)



Ulcer venous, leg (NHS)

Ulcer, peptic (NHS)

Ulnar Nerve Entrapment at the Elbow (Cubital Tunnel Syndrome) (AAOS)

Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome of the Wrist (AAOS)

Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome of the Wrist (Au)

Understanding Complementary and Alternative Medicine (AAOS)

Unicameral Bone Cysts (AAOS)

Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (Au)

Unicompartmental Knee Replacement (AAOS)

Unstable Kneecap (AAOS)

Unstable Kneecap (Au)

Upper limb disorder (NHS)


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) (NHS)

Vertical Talus (AAOS)

Viscosupplementation Treatment for Knee Arthritis (AAOS)

Von Willebrand disease (NHS)



Warfarin (NHS)

Weight loss  (NHS)

Weight loss (NHS)

Weight loss (unexpected and unplanned) (NHS)

Weight loss surgery (NHS)

Weight loss surgery (NHS)

Weight-Bearing during Rehabilitation (Au)

What Are NSAIDs? (AAOS)

What is a Hand Surgeon? (AAOS)

What Is a Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon? (AAOS)

Whiplash (Au)

Whiplash (NHS)

Work related upper limb disorder (WRULD) (NHS)

Wrist Arthroscopy (AAOS)

Wrist Arthroscopy (Au)

Wrist Fractures (Au)

Wrist Joint Replacement (Wrist Arthroplasty) (AAOS)

Wrist Sprains (AAOS)

Wrist, broken (NHS)


X-ray (NHS)

X-rays, CT Scans and MRIs (AAOS)

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